Ginseng has been used in Asia and North America for centuries. Many use it to improve thinking, concentration, memory and physical endurance. It’s also utilized to help with depression, anxiety and as a chronic fatigue natural treatment. It’s known to boost the immune system, fight infections and help men with erectile dysfunction.
Native Americans once used the root as a stimulant and headache remedy, as well as a treatment for infertility, fever and indigestion. Today, approximately 6 million Americans take advantage of the proven ginseng benefits regularly.
There are 11 species of ginseng, all belonging to the genus Panax of the family Araliaceae; The botanical name Panax means “all heal” in Greek. The name “ginseng” is used to refer to both American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) and Asian or Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng). The true ginseng plant belongs only to the Panax genus, so other species, such as Siberian ginseng and crown prince ginseng, have distinctively different functions.
The unique and beneficial compounds of the Panax species are called ginsenosides, and they’re currently under clinical research to investigate their potential for medical use. Both Asian and
American ginseng contain ginsenosides, but they include different types in different amounts. Research has varied, and some experts aren’t yet convinced that there’s enough data to label the medical capabilities of ginseng, but for centuries people have believed in its beneficial compounds and results.
What are the forms of ginseng?
American ginseng isn’t ready for use until it’s grown for about six years; It’s endangered in the wild, so now it’s grown on farms to protect it from over harvesting. The American ginseng plant has leaves that grow in a circular shape about the stem. The flowers are yellow-green and shaped like an umbrella; They grow in the center of the plant and produce red berries. The plant gets wrinkles around the neck with age — older plants are more valuable and more expensive because ginseng benefits are more abundant in aged roots.
Ginseng contains various pharmacological components, including a series of tetracyclic triterpenoid saponins (ginsenosides), polyacetylenes, polyphenolic compounds and acidic polysaccharides.
1. Improves Mood and Reduces Stress
A controlled study done at the Brain Performance and Nutrition Research Centre in the United Kingdom involved 30 volunteers who were given three rounds of treatments of ginseng and placebo. The study was done to gather data about ginseng’s ability to improve mood and mental function. The results found that 200 milligrams of ginseng for eight days slowed the fall in mood, but also slowed the participants’ response to mental arithmetic. The 400 milligram dose improved calmness and improved mental arithmetic for the duration of the eight-day treatment.
Another study done at the Division of Pharmacology at the Central Drug Research Institute tested the effects of Panax ginseng on rats with chronic stress and found that it “has significant anti-stress properties and can be used for the treatment of stress-induced disorders.” The 100 milligram dose of Panax ginseng reduced the ulcer index, adrenal gland weight and plasma glucose levels — making it a powerful medicinal options for chronic stress and a great ulcer natural remedy and way to heal adrenal fatigue.
2. Improves Brain Function
Ginseng stimulates brain cells and improves concentration and cognitive activities. Evidence shows that taking Panax ginseng root daily for 12 weeks can improve mental performance in people with Alzheimer’s disease. One study done at the Department of Neurology at the Clinical Research Institute in South Korea investigated the effectiveness of ginseng on the cognitive performance of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. After ginseng treatment, the participants showed improvements, and this upscale trend continued for three months. After discontinuing ginseng treatment, the improvements declined to the levels of the control group.
This suggest ginseng works as an Alzheimer’s natural treatment. Although more research on this topic is needed, one preliminary study found that a combination of American ginseng and ginkgo biloba helps naturally remedy ADHD.
3. Has Anti-Inflammatory Properties
An interesting study done in Korea measured the beneficial effects of Korean red ginseng on children after chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation for advanced cancer. The study included 19 patients who received 60 milligrams of Korean red ginseng daily for one year. Blood samples were collected every six months, and as a result of the treatment, the cytokines, or small proteins that are responsible for sending signals to the brain and regulating cell growth, decreased rapidly, which was a significant difference from the control group. This study suggests that Korean red ginseng has a stabilizing effect of the inflammatory cytokines in children with cancer after chemotherapy.
A 2011 study published in the American Journal of Chinese Medicine done on rats also measured the impact that Korean red ginseng has on inflammatory cytokines; After giving rats 100 milligrams of Korean red ginseng extract for seven days, the ginseng proved to significantly reduce the extent of inflammation — the root of most diseases — and it improved the damage that was already done to the brain.
Another animal study measured ginseng’s anti-inflammatory benefits. Korean red ginseng was tested for its anti-allergic properties on 40 mice with allergic rhinitis, a common upper airway inflammatory disease typically seen in children and adults; The most frequent symptoms include congestion, nasal itching and sneezing. At the end of the trial, the Korean red ginseng reduced the nasal allergic inflammatory reaction in the mice, showcasing ginseng’s place among the best anti-inflammatory foods.
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Another surprising ginseng benefit is its ability to work as a natural appetite suppressant. It also boosts your metabolism and helps the body burn fat at a faster rate. A study done at the Tang Center for Herbal Medicine Research in Chicago measured the anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects of Panax ginseng berry in adult mice; The mice were injected with 150 milligrams of ginseng berry extract per kilogram of body weight for 12 days. By day five, the mice taking the ginseng extract had significantly lower fasting blood glucose levels. After day 12, the glucose tolerance in the mice increased and overall blood glucose levels decreased by 53 percent. The treated mice showed weight loss, too, starting at 51 grams and ending the treatment at 45 grams.
A similar study done in 2009 found that Panax ginseng plays a vital role in the anti-obesity effect in mice, which suggests the clinical importance of improving the management of obesity and related metabolic syndromes with ginseng.
5. Treats Sexual Dysfunction
Taking powdered Korean red ginseng seems to improve sexual arousal and treat erectile dysfunction in men. A 2008 systematic review included 28 randomized clinical studies that evaluated the effectiveness of red ginseng for treating erectile dysfunction; The review provided suggestive evidence for the use of red ginseng, but researchers believe that more rigorous studies are necessary in order to draw definitive conclusions.
Of the 28 reviewed studies, six reported an improvement of erectile function when using red ginseng compared with placebo control. Four studies tested the effects of red ginseng for sexual function using questionnaires compared with placebo, and all trials reported positive effects of red ginseng.
Research done in 2002 at the Department of Physiology at Southern Illinois University’s School of Medicine indicates that ginseng’s ginsenoside components facilitate penile erections by directly inducing the vasodilatation and relaxation of the erectile tissue. It’s the release of nitric oxide from endothelial cells and perivascular nerves that directly affect the erectile tissue.
The university’s research also indicates that ginseng affects the central nervous system and significantly alters the activity in the brain that facilitates hormonal behavior and secretion.
6. Improves Lung Function
Ginseng treatment has significantly decreased lung bacteria, and studies involving rats have shown that ginseng can stop the growth of cystic fibrosis, a common lung infection. In one 1997 study, rats were given ginseng injections, and after two weeks, the treated group showed a significantly improved bacterial clearance from the lungs.
Research also shows another ginseng benefit is its ability to treat a lung disease called chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is characterized as chronically poor airflow that typically worsens over time. According to the research, taking Panax ginseng by mouth seems to improve lung function and some symptoms of COPD.
7. Lowers Blood Sugar Levels
Several studies show that American ginseng lowers blood sugar levels in people with type 2 diabetes, working as a diabetes natural remedy. According to the University of Maryland Medical Center, one study found that people with type 2 diabetes who took American ginseng before or together with a high sugar drink showed less of an increase in blood glucose levels.
Another study done at the Human Cognitive Neuroscience Unit in the United Kingdom found that Panax ginseng causes a reduction in blood glucose levels one hour after the consumption of glucose, confirming that ginseng possess glucoregulatory properties.
One of the primary difficulties with type 2 diabetes is that the body is not responsive enough to insulin. One study found that Korean red ginseng improved insulin sensitivity, further explaining ginseng’s ability to help lower blood sugar levels and help those struggling with type 2 diabetes.
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Research has shown that ginseng possesses powerful anticancer properties because of its ability to inhibit tumor growth. Although more research is needed on this subject, reports conclude that it’s the improvements in cell immunity involving T cells and NK cells (natural killer cells), along with other mechanisms such as oxidative stress, apoptosis and angiogenesis, that gives ginseng its anticancer properties.
Scientific reviews state that ginseng mitigates cancer through anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and apoptotic mechanisms to influence gene expression and stop tumor growth. This shows ginseng may work as a natural cancer treatment. A number of studies have focused on ginseng’s particular effect on colorectal cancer as about 1 in 21 people in the U.S. will get colorectal cancer during their lifetime. Researchers treated human colorectal cancer cells with steamed ginseng berry extract and found the anti-proliferation effects were 98 percent for HCT-116 and 99 percent for SW-480 cells. When researchers tested steamed American ginseng root, they found results comparable to that of the steamed berry extract.
9. Boosts Immune System
Another well-researched ginseng benefit is its ability to boost the immune system — helping the body fight off infection and disease. The roots, stems and leaves of ginseng have been used for maintaining immune homeostasis and enhancing resistance to illness or infection.
Several clinical studies have shown that American ginseng improves the performance of cells that play a role in immunity. Ginseng regulates each type of immune cell, including macrophages, natural killer cells, dendritic cells, T cells and B cells.
Ginseng extracts produce antimicrobial compounds that work as a defense mechanism against bacterial and viral infections. Studies show that ginseng’s polyacetylene compounds are effective against bacterial infections.
Research involving mice showed that ginseng decreased the number of bacteria present in the spleens, kidney and blood. Ginseng extracts also protected mice from septic death due to inflammation. Reports show that ginseng also has inhibitory effects on the growth of many viruses, including influenza, HIV and rotavirus.
10. Relieve Menopause Symptoms
Pesky symptoms such as hot flashes, night sweats, mood swings, irritability, anxiety, depressive symptoms, vaginal dryness, decreased sex drive, weight gain, insomnia and thinning hair tend to accompany menopause. Some evidence suggests that ginseng can help decrease the severity and occurrence of these. A systematic review of randomized clinical trials found that in three different trials, Korean red ginseng had the efficacy to boost sexual arousal in menopausal women, increase well-being and general health while decreasing depressive symptoms and better improve menopause symptoms on the Kupperman’s index and Menopausal Rating Scale as compared to the placebo group. A fourth study found no significant difference in the frequency of hot flashes between the ginseng and placebo group.
Types of Ginseng
While the Panax family (Asian and American) are the only “true” types of ginseng due to their high levels of the active ingredient ginsenosides, there are other adaptogenic herbs that have similar properties that are also known as relatives to ginseng.
Asian Ginseng: panax ginseng, also known as red ginseng and Korean ginseng, is the classic and original that has been renown for thousands of years. Often used to boost in Traditional Chinese Medicine for those who are struggling with low Qi, coldness and a yang deficiency, which can display as fatigue. This form can also help with weakness, exhaustion, type 2 diabetes, erectile dysfunction and poor memory.
American Ginseng: panax quinquefolius, grows throughout the northern regions of North America, including New York, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin and Ontario, Canada. American ginseng has been shown to fight depression, balance blood sugar, support digestive distress caused by anxiety, improve focus and boost the immune system. In comparison, American ginseng is more mild than Asian ginseng but still very therapeutic and usually used to treat yin deficiency instead of yang deficiency.
Siberian Ginseng: eleutherococcus senticocus, grows wild in Russia and Asia, also known as just eleuthro, contains high levels of eleutherosides, which have very similar benefits to ginsenosides found in panax species of ginseng. Studies indicate that Siberian ginseng may increase VO2 max to optimize cardiovascular endurance, improve fatigue and support immunity.
Indian Ginseng: withania somnifera, also known as ashwagandha, is a renowned herb in Ayurveda medicine for enhancing longevity. It has some similar benefits to classic ginseng but also has many differences. It can be taken more on a long-term basis and has been shown to improve thyroid hormone levels (TSH, T3 & T4), relieve anxiety, balance cortisol, improve cholesterol, regulate blood sugar and improve fitness levels.
Brazilian Ginseng: pfaffia paniculata, also known as suma root, grows throughout the rain forests of South America and means “for everything” in Portuguese because of its diverse benefits. Suma root contains ecdysterone, which supports healthy levels of testosterone in men and women and may also support muscular health, reduce inflammation, fight cancer, improve sexual performance and boost endurance.
Ginseng History & Interesting Facts
Ginseng was originally used as an herbal medicine in ancient China; There are even written records about its properties dating back to about 100 A.D. By the 16th century, ginseng was so popular that control over the ginseng fields became an issue.
In 2010, nearly all of the world’s 80,000 tons of ginseng in international commerce was produced in four countries — South Korea, China, Canada and the United States. Today, ginseng is marketed in over 35 countries and sales exceed $2 billion, half coming from South Korea.
Korea continues to be the largest provider of ginseng and China the largest consumer. Today, most North American ginseng is produced in Ontario, British Columbia, and Wisconsin.
Ginseng cultivated in Korea is classified into three types, depending on how it’s processed:
● Fresh ginseng is less than four years old.
● White ginseng is between four and six years old and is dried after peeling.
● Red ginseng is harvested, steamed and dried when it’s six years old.
Because people consider the age of the ginseng roots important, a 400-year-old root of Manchurian ginseng from the mountains of China sold for $10,000 per ounce in 1976.
Ginseng Recommended Doses
The following ginseng doses have been studied in scientific research:
● For type 2 diabetes, the usual effective dose seems to be 200 milligrams daily.
● For erectile dysfunction, 900 milligrams of Panax ginseng three times daily is what researchers have found useful.
● For premature ejaculation, apply SS-Cream, containing Panax ginseng and other ingredients, to the penis one hour before intercourse and wash off before intercourse.
● For stress, tension or fatigue, take 1 gram of ginseng daily, or 500 milligrams twice daily.
Possible Side Effects and Interactions
The side effects from ginseng are generally mild. Ginseng can act as a stimulant in some people, so it may cause nervousness and insomnia (especially in large doses). Long-term use or high doses of ginseng may cause headaches, dizziness and stomachaches. Women who use ginseng regularly may experience menstrual changes, and there have also been some reports of allergic reactions to ginseng.
Given the lack of evidence about its safety, ginseng is not recommended for children or women who are pregnant or breastfeeding.
Ginseng may affect blood sugar levels, so people taking drugs for diabetes shouldn’t use ginseng without talking to their health care providers first. Ginseng can interact with warfarin and with some medicines for depression; Caffeine may amplify ginseng’s stimulant effects.
There is some concern that Panax ginseng increases symptoms of autoimmune diseases such as MS, lupus and rheumatoid arthritis, so patients with those conditions should consult with their doctor before and while taking this supplement. It may also interfere with blood clotting and shouldn’t be taken by those with bleeding conditions. People who have had organ transplants may not want to take ginseng because it could increase the risk of organ rejection. (29)
Ginseng may interact with female hormone-sensitive illnesses such as breast cancer, uterine cancer, ovarian cancer, endometriosis and uterine fibroids because it has estrogen-like effects. (29)
Ginseng may interact with the following medications:
● Medications for diabetes
● Blood-thinning medications
● Antipsychotic medications
Excessive use of ginseng can lead to Ginseng Abuse Syndrome, which has been associated with affective disorder, allergy, cardiovascular and renal toxicity, genital organ bleeding, gynecomastia, hepatotoxicity, hypertension and reproductive toxicity.
To avoid side effects from ginseng, some experts suggest not taking ginseng for more than three to six months at a time. If need be, your doctor may recommend that you take a break and then begin to take ginseng again for a few weeks or months.